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By October 25, 2013 4 Comments Read More →

DIY solar power projects | For the shed or poultry house

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10W panel and battery box

John Butterworth ‘sheds light’ on a simple DIY solar-powered system for illuminating your hen-house or running an electric fence.

See Also:

Preparing Poultry for Winter
DIY Poultry House Plans
Building and Using a Solar Oven

 

Always a drawback, isn’t it, to have a shed too far away from a mains supply? It makes you realise just how much we rely on power-on-tap these days. Maybe you need to light up a hen-house to extend the laying period into the winter months (the experts tell us we should, and rising corn prices tell us we must!). Or perhaps you have a tractor battery to keep charged? If you’ve ever had a flat battery a good distance from a mains socket you’ll know just how heavy they are to carry.

Well, this is for you then: a (fairly) cheap method of using solar power to bring light into your ‘sheddy’ darkness. I installed a solar system in our hen-house about four years ago, and it worked, after a fashion. We used it to light the shed at dawn and dusk, and to power the electric fence round the hen run to keep the fox out; the drawback was in the depths of winter though, when lack of sunlight meant it would keep the battery charged for only two or three weeks. After that I had to disconnect it, take it indoors, charge it with a mains charger (for twelve hours at least) and take it back out – a rotten job in snow, and a period with no lights and no fence power.

SOLAR PANELS

Under the glass face of a panel is a silicon material that creates an electric current when light shines on it, hence the name ‘photovoltaic’. The rating in watts is the maximum power you’d get on a midsummer day at noon, with the panel facing south and at 35 degrees so the sun shines directly on the face. All the rest of the time it will generate less than the rated power, though you’ll still get some during daylight hours whatever the weather.

There are LOADS of panels on eBay, but be careful what you buy, as ever. You need a solar panel with enough ‘oomph’ to do the job, and from experience a minimum of 10 watts is required. I’d recommend 50 watts, so that’s what I got. We’ll want to use it with a 12-volt battery, so look for ‘12-volt solar panels’. “But, what’s this?” you cry – the specification for a typical panel says ‘open circuit voltage 17 volts’! Fear not, that is what we want for our 12-volt system, as the ‘charge controller’ will sort it out, as you’ll see below.

SOLAR CHARGE CONTROLLERS

Why can’t I just connect a solar panel to a battery, you may ask. Well, you could, and some are marketed as car battery chargers that plug into the car’s 12-volt lighter socket. This only works if the solar panel is small and weedy enough not to overcharge the battery, and for our purposes here, they’re a waste of space – typically they’re less than 2 watts, so for lights, electric fencers and tractor batteries, they’re nowhere near big enough to do the job.

If the sun is shining brightly (I know, we’re in Britain, but sometimes it does), a 50-watt panel will put over 4 amps into the battery, and it will be at about 15 volts or more. This will overcharge and eventually kill your battery. If you run lots of gizmos (lights for example) when the sun isn’t shining, you’ll flatten the battery, which again, will kill it sooner or later. A charge controller stops those things happening. I’ve set up the old 5-watt solar panel on a board to demonstrate how it all connects up, as you can see in the picture.

DIY solar power projects

DIY solar power projects

 

Just follow the instructions with the controller, but typically, connect the 12-volt battery (this one is a small, electric fence type) to the ‘battery’ terminals on the controller; then connect the solar panel wires to the solar controller connectors. If all you’re doing is using the sun to charge a battery, as I intend to do with my tractor battery in the tractor shed, that’s all there is to it! Sun shines; battery charges.

The charge controller (this one is called an ‘ET Suncharger’) regulates the voltage coming out of the panel (maybe 14–17 volts) to something the battery likes (about 12–14 volts), to stop it being fried by being overcharged.

If you want to run a light or some other 12-volt gizmo in your shed, connect it to the ‘output’ terminals on the controller as you can see. Then, if you leave the light or gizmo on too long and it starts to flatten the battery, the controller simply switches the power to the output terminals off to protect the battery, and stop it being undercharged, or flattened. So that’s ‘overcharge’ and ‘undercharge’ protection.

Note that if you wanted to put the light on and off at set times, the 12-volt timer I showed above could be fitted between the ‘output’ terminals and the light, but there’s a cheaper way, as you’ll see!

LIGHTING THE HEN-HOUSE

So, let’s look at setting up my all-singing, all-dancing modern system in the hen-house, where we want to run lights in the winter months to extend the laying period, and run the electric fencing unit all year round.

A few ‘givens’ in the light of experience – the solar panel needs to be big enough to keep the battery charged, even in winter – 50 watts then. The timer was far too expensive, so let’s avoid timers if possible. We need a decent charge controller to protect the battery too, and the original solar controller I had only protected from undercharge (always check the specifications!), and even the later ‘ET Suncharger’ specifications leave a lot to be desired. Something altogether modern is called for, and that’s a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) charge controller. These are just great. They control the charging current to the battery by varying the width of a pulse, so they’re ‘digital’. Now, you might be thinking “who the H*** cares?” at this point, but you should care – not only are they better, they’re cheaper!

The old type had to have high-power components in them, which made them relatively expensive, or, like the ‘Suncharger’, you were expected to disconnect your gizmos when the battery became flat or overcharged. Perhaps I’m missing something, but that doesn’t seem like good design.

All that is solved with PWM controllers – not only can they use cheaper components, they control the charge much more accurately, so your expensive battery should last a lot longer (time will tell!). Mine has a built-in timer, as its original use was for controlling street lights – switching them on after dusk for a pre-settable period. Instead of £20 for a fairly crude solar controller and £40+ for a timer, I paid £13.50 for a super-duper controller that does it all.

For the battery: prior to the advent of these wizard PWM controllers, I’d have recommended a ‘leisure’ battery, not a bog-standard car battery. That’s because ordinary car batteries (‘starter’ batteries) simply hate being deeply discharged – it causes them to ‘sulphate’, which means they won’t recharge properly and they have a really short useful life. PWM controllers claim to keep the battery at 90–95% charge, so in theory you should be able to use the cheaper starter battery rather than splash out on a more expensive leisure battery.

MOUNTING THE SOLAR PANEL

This needs mounting in an unshaded place, at an angle of about 30–35˚, and facing south if possible. Our hen-house roof faces south-west, so that’ll have to do. Typical 50-watt panels come without mounting brackets, so I sawed up an old aluminium window frame and made some. I bolted them to the panel, marked and drilled the holes on the roof, then pushed stainless steel bolts through from inside and bolted it down. Put loads of sealant on the bolts and the brackets though, or the roof will leak.

DIY solar power projects

Mounting bracket bolted to panel

The cables come with really top quality connectors, on special high-temperature cable. <picConnectors on rear of panel.> Mark the positive lead with red tape, as the cables are both black (rather unhelpfully), then cut these connectors off and chuck ’em, as the charge controller just has screw terminals and the connectors won’t fit. I mounted the charge controller inside the shed, but let’s face it, hen huts can be mucky, dusty places, so I mounted it inside a plastic container (No. 36, Special Fried Rice) to keep it clean. Here it is with the lid off to show you what the controller looks like. The button on the right sets the programme for how long the light switches on. The solar panel connects to the left pair of terminals, the battery to the middle terminals, and the light to the right-hand terminals.

Charge controller

Charge controller

To keep the power to a minimum when the battery kept going flat I bought an LED light (about 2 watts I think) from Halfords, but fluorescent is, believe it or not, still slightly more efficient in terms of the amount of light you get per watt of power. This is the ‘lumens per watt’ ratio, and at the moment, white LEDs are only about 34 lumens per watt, with compact fluorescents about 55 lumens per watt. LEDs are improving fast and should exceed that quite soon. Alas, though, my better half thinks the brighter fluorescent light encourages better laying, so I’ll experiment with both and see which works best.

DIY solar power projects

LED Light

 

The ‘output’ to the lights is the one that the controller disconnects if the sun doesn’t shine and the battery looks like going flat, and it’s also ‘timed’ to only supply power after dusk. The electric fence on the other hand needs to be on all the time, so I’ve connected it directly to the battery terminals. It takes very little power, so with the nice big solar panel connected up I don’t expect it to flatten the battery, even in winter. We’ll see.

So, there you have it. The old solar panel and charge controller will be relegated to tractor battery-charging duties, so they’ll still have some useful life.

COSTS (September 2011)

The 50-watt 12-volt panel was £95 + £8 postage via an online auction site; it arrived two days after I’d ordered it and it’s good kit. Beware of buying from shops or even electric fence suppliers – I’ve seen 20-watt panels at £130 and 50-watt at £275. Either they’re old stock, gold plated or the suppliers hope you know nothing.

Charge Controller – an ‘EPRC-10’ – you can see what appears to be exactly the same item on the Internet at £55 from a specialist solar company, £27 from Amazon, and £13.50 on eBay, so shop around!

LED light £10 from Halfords. 12-volt 8-watt fluorescent about £10 from Amazon. Battery – about £60 and upwards for a leisure battery.

If you get a charge controller without a built-in timer, a timer like mine is now, annoyingly, about £19 (google ‘12V timer’).

Further Reading

A good article about the wonders of PWM charge controllers appears here:

http://www.morningstarcorp.com/en/support/library/8.%20Why%20PWM1.pdf

Read this and you’ll want one, even if you don’t have a solar panel to connect it to!

 

4 Comments on "DIY solar power projects | For the shed or poultry house"

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  1. How To Diy Solar House Power | Information | October 26, 2016
  1. eric says:

    Hi. i have a question.everything is fine upto the inverter.i need to have the solar power in 3 rooms of my small house. what type of sockets do i need to that i can extend the ac power that’s coming from the inverter.

    thanks

  2. Helen says:

    Brilliant article – thanks! Just one question though would this set up be powerful enough to run a basic heater for a 7×7′ greenhouse?

  3. My brother Mike lives in a remote glen in the Western Highlands, and is very busy right now with the big local estate where he works with the stalking. He does not however have electricity and really enjoys the old ways of living HOWEVER I would love, love, love to get him a solar powered bread maker for Christmas. I was more or less giving up any hope of finding one…. till I saw your article on the solar powered lighting for hen- houses… Do you think you can help me find my goal for Mike’s Christmas present?

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