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Types of Beehives

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Straw skeps were among the first hives provided for bees when man wanted to 'domesticate' them.

Straw skeps were among the first hives provided for bees when man wanted to ‘domesticate’ them

We’ve asked Claire Waring, editor of Beecraft Magazine and co-author of the Haynes Bee Manual to sum up the types of beehives available.

NESTING
Our honeybees, Apis mellifera, nest in cavities. In the wild they use hollow trees and dry rock cavities. Rather unusually, one has even been found in a rabbit hole! Now, bees are quite happy to use artificial cavities, and bee-keepers find themselves being asked to remove colonies from chimneys and cavity walls. Swarms move into unlikely spaces, and we have even collected one from under a drain cover in the road!

A feral colony housed under a porch overhang.

A feral colony housed under a porch overhang.

DOMESTICATING THE BEE
To ‘domesticate’ the honeybee, man took advantage of this nesting behaviour, providing artificial hives including straw skeps and clay pots. He could then drive the bees out or kill them to harvest the honey and wax. However, this was wasteful, as the bee-keeper then had to find more bees the following year.

The next development was a system whereby combs could be taken out of the hive and then replaced. Bee-keepers knew that natural combs are built parallel and at the same distance apart, which could be measured. Putting slats (top bars) of the appropriate width across the top of the hive gave them access to the combs. The bars were given a hemispherical or triangular profile, as bees will cluster on the lowest point to start wax production.

However, combs on top bars are fragile and can easily break off. Full frames were introduced to strengthen them. Initially these were made to fit the box, with only a small gap between the side bars and the hive walls. Well, we know what bees do with small gaps in their hives… they fill them with propolis! This meant the frames were stuck to the hives and were therefore very difficult to remove, rather defeating the object.

EUREKA!
The real eureka moment came when the Revd L. L. Langstroth realised a space had to be left between the side bar and the box. The concept of the ‘bee-space’ was born.

We now know the bee-space is 6–8mm (¼–⅜in) and that bees leave one bee-space between the edges of their combs and the cavity wall, and one bee-space between combs in the honey storage area of their nest. Where bees need to pass between the combs in the brood nest and between the bottom of the comb and the floor, they double this up.

MODERN BEE-KEEPING
All modern frame or top-bar bee-keeping is based on Langstroth’s discovery. Greek bee-keepers using top bars observed that if the hive walls sloped inwards, the bees did not attach their comb to them. This has been incorporated into such hives as the Kenya top-bar hive, which is widely used in Africa and increasing in popularity in the USA and the UK.

 The Langstroth hive is named after Revd. Langstroth who discovered the bee space. It is the most widely used hive throughout the world.


The Langstroth hive is named after Revd. Langstroth who discovered the bee space. It is the most widely used hive throughout the world.

The Langstroth is the most popular frame hive worldwide. This has a deep brood box measuring 508mm x 413mm x 243mm, a medium box which is 170mm deep, and a super at 150mm. Some bee-keepers prefer to use the same size box throughout so that all frames are interchangeable.

THE WBC HIVE
The style of design most people recognise as a ‘typical’ beehive is the WBC, designed by William Broughton Carr in 1890. This is a double-walled hive with the boxes containing the frames surrounded by ‘lifts’, which stack on top of each other and support the roof.

The WBC is a double-walled hive which provides greater protection against the elements but is more cumbersome to work.

The WBC is a double-walled hive which provides greater protection against the elements but is more cumbersome to work.

This design may be more suitable for colder areas, giving a degree of additional protection against the elements. It is more cumbersome to work and difficult to move when it contains bees. However, it is decorative, particularly in a garden situation. Indeed, some gardeners purchase just the outer components and use them as storage containers!

THE MODIFIED NATIONAL HIVE
The majority of bee-keepers in the UK use the Modified National hive, which is smaller than the Langstroth, measuring 460mm square and 225mm deep. Supers are 150mm deep. For those wanting a larger brood box, the 356mm x 305mm is also available.

The Modified National hive is the most popular hive in the British Isles.

The Modified National hive is the most popular hive in the British Isles.

 

Other commercially available hives are the Commercial, the Smith and the Dadant.

TOP AND BOTTOM BEE-SPACE
In a natural cavity the combs stretch continuously from top to bottom of the cavity. This is not practical for the bee-keeper who needs to inspect the brood area and expand the volume available in a strong honey flow. He also wants to remove the surplus honey without destroying the brood at the bottom of the comb.

This presents a problem where the boxes join. If the top and bottom bars of adjacent frames touch, the bees will propolise them together. Our solution is to leave a bee-space between these components. Then the question arises as to whether this should be above the top bars (top bee-space) or below the bottom bars (bottom bee-space). Different hives use different spacing, of course!

Langstroth, Smith and Dadant hives are top bee-space, with the WBC, National and Commercial being bottom bee-space. There can be heated debates as to which is most suitable. Personally, I don’t think it matters that much, as in both cases you are leaving a bee-space gap between the frames and that is what bees need. < pic The Langstroth, Smith and Dadant hives use the top bee space. >

CHOOSING A HIVE
Your choice of hive is personal. If you are just starting out I suggest you talk to other bee-keepers in your area (join your local bee-keeping association to meet them) to find which is their most popular hive. This will give you a good idea of the size of hive that suits your local bees, and you will also find second-hand equipment more readily available. If your association has an apiary with different hive types, you can ‘try before you buy’. See also this very personal guide to the hives from the Talking with Bees Blog

DON’T MIX HIVE TYPES
My very strong recommendation is that you decide on a hive type and stick to it. This means all your boxes will be interchangeable. Assuming your bees are healthy, it also means you can move frames around in manipulations such as swarm control. If you are using different hives in your apiary with different sized frames, you may well end ‘up that proverbial creek without a paddle’ just when you need it most.

HIVE MATERIALS
The majority of UK hives are made from wood. They can be treated with wood preservative (making sure it’s one that doesn’t kill insects) or paint. If they get damaged they can be mended easily by anyone with basic carpentry skills. Polystyrene hives are now available and you may want to try these.

ALTERNATIVE HIVES
* The Dartington Long Hive essentially consists of brood boxes combined horizontally rather than vertically. It takes up to seventeen 356mm x 305mm (14in x 12in) frames. The super boxes take six frames and are easier to handle.
* The Beehaus is a plastic hive based on the Dartington Long Hive.
* The Warré hive uses top bars rather than full frames. When bees need more space, boxes are added below the existing ones.

 Sun hives. Photo courtesy of the Natural Beekeeping Trust.


Sun hives. Photo courtesy of the Natural Beekeeping Trust.

Those wishing to pursue ‘natural’ or ‘sustainable’ bee-keeping have a choice of hives, which include the Golden hive, the Sun hive, the Perone hive and the Wild hive. More information is available from The Natural Beekeeping Trust.

I would recommend that you don’t try them until you’ve gained some experience of working with bees and have learnt the first principles of how they operate, as these hives require different management strategies, and much of what you read in basic bee-keeping books won’t necessarily apply to them.

 

 

Posted in: Bees and Beekeeping

About the Author:

Ruth Tott is the publisher of Home Farmer Magazine, and together with her husband, Paul Melnyczuk, Editor,is founder of the company. But her background is far removed having specialised in Costume History with a Post-Grad diploma in Museum Studies to boot. A far cry from looking after chickens, growing veg and making bread!

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